Be an Online Tutor and Earn Good Money

Online tutoring is getting more popularity day by day. And this is a very good job too. Teaching is always a great service. And the online tutoring is a very good source of earning money. If you think that you can do the work, then you can proceed for it. You must earn a huge amount of money. You can take this source as part time work too, along with your main job. By utilizing the extra time after your all work you can give a minimum time for this work. By teaching only for a few hours a day you can earn good money. You can take this seriously too. Millions of people do this work as full time job.

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How to do this?

For this work you need to have a very good teaching quality, and I think you have the quality. Then you need to create blog and websites, those will be the medium of your teaching and of reaching to the students. Many teachers also use the webcam for teaching. And this webcam system is the most popular way of teaching today. Do these work carefully? Try to behave with your students like friends, provide them right materials for study. And you need to do this work with patience.

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Be an Online Tutor & Earn Good Money

How to get payment?

You need to clear the payment options to your students. You can ask them to pay through paypal account, credit cards, debit cards, checks etc… But first of all you need to clear this to your students or to their guardians. Make them known about your paying conditions. If you want to take per class fees then tell this, you can also start some attractive packages for them also.

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Is online tutoring money making?

Exactly. The online tutoring is a very good source of earning money. You can do this as a part time work. But if you take this as full time work then you will get more earning. If you can provide many hours to this work, you can attain more students and thus you can get fees from more students. And as you are the master of your work, you can fix the amount of fees for your teaching yourself. So, you can ask high amount as fees from your students. But you should disclose your fees to your students at the first time. There should be no hidden fees for the students.

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The present generation is getting too fast. And as it is the age of digitalization, you can find digitalization in everywhere, and then can be found in the teaching too. The internet technology is getting more popularity day by day. The science and technologies have provided lots of opportunities in front of us. And for that we can found digitalization in tutoring also. It is very helpful also. A student can get knowledge and guidance from an abroad teacher very easily. No geographical boundary can stop this. And by doing this good service people can earn money in a huge amount.

Be an Online Tutor & Earn Good Money1

Tips for Making Money with Paid Surveys

Making good money by doing paid surveys is not a tough work at all. You and the people like you can do this work, and also can earn money in a huge amount, within very short period. But there are also many people who do not believe that. The fact is that they do not know about it, and for that they do not believe it. You can earn money by using your internet connection, from various companies’ site; those want people for paid survey. This is a very good work and you can make it a source of part time income. By giving the excess time of your day you can earn a lot of money that you can’t even imagine. There are also many people who do this work seriously and they take this source of earning money as a full time work.

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Tips for Making Money with Paid Surveys1

How to find those sites?

First you need to find the sites those provide this work. You can simply find it in the Google. A lot of marketing organizations are there those do market surveys. And they are looking for people who are interested in this work. They are looking for you as you are looking for them. Most of those sites are free for people. So, you can get a free entry to those sites. But there are also so many sites those charges money for this. Thus you can sort out the sites those provide this work.

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The process of making money by this

Select the suitable site for working. Then you need to open a new e- mail id because if you do work with your existing e- mail id, then it could be a mess, your personal and business mails will be mixed, and this is problematic.  Then you need to open a free account at paypal.com. You should do it before you start working for survey because after connecting with a site if you want to open such account, they can charge you money for that.  Connect with the company, you have selected for working. And they will send work at your e- mail id. You get enough work from them.  Do the work according to the guidelines of the website. Do all work carefully and rightly. Then follow the guidelines of the website to get the payment. If you have the paypal account you will get the payment at this account. And thus you can earn a huge amount of money by working thus.

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There are many people who work like thus and earn good money. As I previously said that many people also take this as a medium of full time earning. By investing the excessive time after all your work you can earn a good amount of money. You can also be connected with more than one company to work with. And if you do this work with more than one company you can earn double money. Modern technology has opened a lot of ways to earn money, and this is one of those.

Tips for Making Money with Paid Surveys2

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Earn Revenue with Commission Junction

What is commission junction?

In few simple words Commission junction is a platform where the advertisers can meet with their online publishers. If you are running a small business and cannot afford to pay for a TV commercial or an ad in the printed media then this is the way for you to reach to the larger audiences. And if you are a blogger who writes and operates an independent website then this can create an income source for you. And you can earn pretty good revenue in a business year through the help of this Commission junction. You have to sign into this website to explore its features and enjoy its beneficial aspects. Nowadays it is known as CJ Affiliate by Conversant, though still now the previous name is more popular. Hence here we will mention the website as Commission junction. Through this you can be a part of the affiliating business. In conclusion it can be said that here you can earn revenue by promoting other’s businesses.

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 How can an independent blogger make money through Commission charge?

The bloggers can find numerous numbers of products as well as services to publish in their website, you can choose the products on the basis of your niche, like if you write about skin then you must choose those products that are related with skin, like skin treatment products, fairness products, tan removing products and many more. If you write about health then you should choose those services that provide medical treatment or medications. As then you can help the advertisers to earn more revenue by attracting the target audiences and then your site will be considered as the reliable site.

earn revenue with Commission Junction1

What are the preliminary steps towards collecting revenue?

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Once you complete the process of signing up into the website make it sure that you have completed your profile in an effective as well as interesting manner. Here you must draw the attention of the advertisers and hence you must present your profile in incredible way and you need to show them enough reason why they must choose your website over other existing websites. The task is not at all easy as you need to show your credibility and there are thousands of competitors with excellent reviews. You to remember that by staying into the top level at your niche you can leave behind your competitors. Your earnings will be increased with your increasing traffic and consequently if more people click on the advertisements and buy the products your income generation will be alleviated. The advertisements can be published in various forms like text, banners, pictures and many more.

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The website has some policies as well which the users need to maintain properly. Money will be paid via bank deposit and check as commission. If your blog can really drag attention of the readers and consecutively purchase the product you can earn up to hundreds dollar in a month. You must make a deal with those products whose earnings are high and pay well to the bloggers.

earn revenue with Commission Junction2

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Easy Way to Earn Huge Money by Online Web Designing

You can earn money online by doing web designing. In fact modern technology and science have opened thousands way to earn money. And earning money by doing online work is one of those ways. You can earn good amount of money by doing web designing for various websites. Many people do this work and earn huge amount of money. You can do this work only by using 2 or 3 hours a day. Use your excessive time of day, and use this in this work to earn some extra money. This is a very good medium of a part time income. Though, the web designing can be taken as a very good source of full time earning. And if you take the web designing as a full time source of money then you can earn enough money, and for that you need to know the work very well.

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Easy Way to Earn Huge Money by Online Web Designing-1
How to find the web designing provider sites?
There are lots of companies those provides the work of web designing. And all those companies have websites and they provide online work. You need to find out the perfect reliable company to do work with. You can find from Google. You will get numerous companies. Read the backgrounds of those companies. After that you need to be sure about the type of work they want from you, terms and conditions and also the paying method. If you are satisfied with all those of the companies, you can proceed for working with those companies.

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How to work?
As you are going for doing web designing work you must know the work. And you need to do the work carefully. First of all you need to create a new e- mail id. Do not use your personal e- mail id, otherwise your personal mail and the official mail will be a mess. If the companies want to pay you through the paypal account, you should open an account at paypal. You can open free account there. Then ask work from the company. They will send work and all the detail information and suggestions thorough the e- mails. Do the work carefully. Send the work to the website. Then you will be paid.

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Easy Way to Earn Huge Money by Online Web Designing-2
Is it money making?
Absolutely. Online web designing is a money making work. You can earn huge amount of money by doing this work carefully. If you do this work for a right company, they will pay you high amount, and you will get enough work. Many people also take this work for full time earning. You can also work for more than one company, and in that case you will be able to earn more money.
Do the work carefully in the excessive time of the day. And you must earn good amount of money. There are many people who take this work seriously. And as the internet is getting more popularity day by day, this work is getting more market. And almost every company wants to hire people like you to do this work online.

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Earn Good Money by Being a Freelance Writer

Use the extra time after all your works to earn money by doing work as a freelance writer. This work is money making. You can earn a good amount of money by this work. You will be free to do the work; there will be no burden or pressure for you. You can do work in your own will. And as you are doing the work by using the extra time after all your work, your main work does not get any pressure. Along with your main job you can continue this work for making some extra money. Though there are many people who do this work for full time. And as the work is very good source of making money, they earn huge amount of money.

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How to get work?

There are many companies those provide freelance writing. You need to search for those companies or organizations. You can search in internet by Google. You will get such many companies those provide freelance writing online. Be sure about the authenticity of those companies because there are also some fake companies those do not pay after work. For that you need to study the background and history of the company. See the detail of those companies and their websites. And after that the terms and conditions of working with them, their paying method, and what type of writing they provide. If you get satisfied with everything, you can start working with them. Know the paying method of the company. If they want to pay you via paypal account then you need to open an account there. Most of the freelance writing providing companies prefers paypal account for paying. You should open a new e- mail id for getting the work. Do not work with your personal e- mail id for not making mess between your personal mails and official mails.

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How to work and get payment?

As you are a freelance writer you know your work best. After getting right company, ask work from them, they will provide you work through e- mails, and every suggestions along with keywords will be given in your mail box. Start working without making any error or grammatical mistake. Please be concern about the quality of your work. Then send the works to the companies. After that you will be paid. If you work for a right company they will pay high amount for this work. And the big companies provide enough works too.

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You can do this work for part time earning. You will get good amount of money from this work. And if you do the work seriously, you can earn huge amount too. And in that case you can take this work as a full time source of earning. If you provide some hours in this work you will get a good amount from the company. You know that along with science and technology everything is getting digitalized. And the internet is getting more effective. And for that those writing are getting more market. So, use this chance for earning.

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Basic tips on making money with Google Adsense

A brief overview on Google Adsense

Though each and every one of us who are the blind devotees of Google have come across those ads that are displayed on this website, but many of us completely ignorant from some surprising facts that are related with Google Ads. These advertisements are operated through a program called Adsense. Though it is free for the publishers but the advertisers need to pay following PPC method. PPC means pay per click; whenever someone clicks on the ad Google as well as the publishers are paid. Google keeps 32% and the publishers keep 68% from the earned revenue. The charge of the pay per click is calculated and decided through an auction like method. It is one of the most reputed and reliable online advertising platforms today and can help to earn huge revenue.

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The basic tips on making money with Google Adsense

The common people can make money with Google Adsense

You may get surprised to know that even a student can earn great amount of money through Google Adsense. You don’t always need to be an entrepreneur or a renowned media house to obtain ads from the advertisers, all you need a website that is full of unique contents. Unique contents that can create huge public awareness or that can drag the attention of the readers, are needed to be existed in your website, as Adsense always prefer such websites that are enriched in unique as well as interesting contents. There is no specification for the types and genre of the content; it can be images, writings as well as videos. You just need to be aware of the fact, the published content never cross the content policies of the Google Adsense.

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You can user your business website as well

If you are an entrepreneur then it is also an income source for you and another great way to increase the number of traffic in your website, for instance you can create a backup website for your prime website and can publish articles, blogs on different topics and can seek advertisements from the advertisers, the revenue will be always higher if you can publish content for targeted audiences. Targeted audience will definitely show interest on the advertisements if they find it interesting or profitable.

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Utilize the feasible keywords

Before publishing article on any niche you must research on the right as well as active keywords of that specific topic. There are various keyword research tools available, even Google has such tools, take help from them and make your content more powerful and effective. Keywords are those words that the users put on the search box. For example, if your website contains ads of fairness creams in such case you can draw maximum traffic as well as maximum revenue if you put keywords like ‘skin lightening trick’, ‘how to get fair complexion’, ‘how to remove tan’, ‘tips on skin lightening’.

As most of the readers who are seeking for skin lightening method will put these phrases in the search engine box and then there is a huge possibility that they can come across your website, and if they find any relevant product they will click on the ad to find out the details and as a consequence you can generate revenue.

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The basic tips on making money with Google Adsense1

Four Microsoft Excel functions

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we will discuss four Microsoft Excel functions:

  • ABSOLUTE
  • TEXT
  • IF THEN
  • CONCATENATE

At the end we will then combine the four functions in one example to demonstrate the power of these functions.
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The absolute function returns the absolute value of a number. The absolute value of a number is the number without its sign.

The syntax for using the absolute functions is:

      =ABS(number)

Where “number” is the real number of which you want the absolute value.
For example:

=ABS(3) equals 3

=ABS(-3) equals 3

If A1 contains -20, then:

=ABS(A1) equals 20

TEXT

With text functions, you can manipulate text strings in formulas. The text function will convert a value to text in a specific number or date format.
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The syntax for using the “TEXT” function is:

=TEXT(value,format_text)

“Value” is a numeric value, a formula that evaluates to a numeric value, or a reference to a cell containing a numeric value.

“Format_text” is a number format in text form from in the Category box on the Number tab in the Format Cells dialog box. This will become clearer when you see an example. “Format_text” cannot contain an asterisk (*) and cannot be the General number format.

Using the TEXT function converts a value to formatted text, and the result is no longer calculated as a number.

For example:

=TEXT(2.715, “$0.00”) equals “$2.72”

=TEXT(“4/15/91”, “mmmm dd, yyyy”) equals “April 15, 1991”

There are numerous other text-type functions and we will discuss these in future newsletters.

IF THEN


This is an extremely powerful function and we will be using this throughout future newsletters.

The “IF THEN ” functions returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to FALSE. Use IF to conduct conditional tests on values and formulas.

The syntax for the “IF THEN” statement is:

      =IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)

“Logical_test” is any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE.

“Value_if_true” is the value that is returned if “logical_test” is TRUE. If “logical_test” is TRUE and “value_if_true” is omitted, TRUE is returned. “Value_if_true” can be another formula including another IF THEN function.

“Value_if_false” is the value that is returned if “logical_test” is FALSE. If “logical_test” is FALSE and “value_if_false” is omitted, FALSE is returned. “Value_if_false” can be another formula including another IF THEN function.

Up to seven IF THEN functions can be nested as “value_if_true” and “value_if_false” arguments to construct more elaborate tests.

For example:

      =IF(A1=200,SUM(B5:B15),””)

If the value in cell A1 is 200, then “logical_test” is TRUE, and the total value for the range B5:B15 is calculated. Otherwise, “logical_test” is FALSE, and empty text (“”) is returned that blanks the cell that contains the IF THEN function.

or

Suppose an expense worksheet contains in B2:B4 the following data for “Actual Expenses” for January, February, and March: 1500, 500, 500. C2:C4 contains the following data for “Predicted Expenses” for the same periods: 900, 900, 925.

You can write a formula to check whether you are over budget for a particular month, generating text for a message with the following formulas:

=IF(B2>C2,”Over Budget”,”OK”) equals “Over Budget”

=IF(B3>C3,”Over Budget”,”OK”) equals “OK”

CONCATENATE (“&”)


The concatenate function joins several text strings into one text string.

The syntax for using this function is:

“Text 1″&” Test2″

Text1, text2, … are 1 to 30 text items to be joined into a single text item. The text items can be text strings, numbers, or single-cell references.

For example:

“Total “&”Value” equals “Total Value”.

BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER


Below is a link to a sample income statement for ABC Widget Company. To better understand this example you should download a copy of this spreadsheet by clicking here: Oct 1999 Sample

We have used the four functions above to generate dynamic notes to the income statement that will change with values. For example try changing the sales from $100,000 to $250,000. Notice how the notes about “Sales”, “Net operating revenue” and “Net income” all changed dynamically.

The formula to generate the note about the change in sales looks like this:

=”Sales for “&$E$6&IF(G10>0,” increased “,” decreased “)&TEXT(ABS(G10), “$0,000″)&” or “&TEXT(ABS(H10),”0%”)&” compared to “&$D$6

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Where:

$E$6 is the cell containing the name of the current month

G10 is the cell containing the dollar change in sales

H10 is the cell containing the percent change in sales

$D$6 is the cell containing the name of the previous month

The formulas for the other notes are similar.

This of course is a simply example, if you are able to import the statistical/operating data that drives you income statement you can generate very sophisticated notes to the income statement automatically.

Two Microsoft Excel tools

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we will discuss two Microsoft Excel tools: 

  • GOAL SEEK
  • SOLVER

At the end we will then demonstrate the power of these function.

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GOAL SEEK

Allow you to find a specific result for a cell by adjusting the value of one other cell

    1 – On the “Tools” menu, click “Goal Seek”

2 – In the “Set cell” box, enter the reference for the cell that

    contains the formula you want to resolve.

3 – In the “To value” box, type the result you want.

    4 – In the “By changing cell” box, enter the reference for the
          cell that contains the value you want to adjust.

SOLVER


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Solver is similar to Goal Seek in that you can define a specific result, but unlike Goal Seek you can adjust up to 200 other cells.

1 – On the Tools menu, click Solver.
If the Solver command is not on the Tools menu,
you need to install the Solver add-in.

2 – In the Set Target Cell box, enter a cell reference or name

for the target cell. The target cell must contain a formula.
3 – To have the value of the target cell be as large as possible,
click Max.
To have the value of the target cell be as small as possible,
click Min.
To have the target cell be a certain value, click Value of,
and then type the value in the box.
4 – In the By Changing Cells box, enter a name or reference for
each adjustable cell, separating nonadjacent references with
commas. The adjustable cells must be related directly or
indirectly to the target cell. You can specify up to 200
adjustable cells.
To have Solver automatically propose the adjustable cells based
on the target cell, click Guess.
5 – In the Subject to the Constraints box, enter any constraints you
want to apply.
6 – Click Solve.
7 – To keep the solution values on the worksheet, click Keep Solver
Solution in the Solver Results dialog box.
To restore the original data, click Restore Original Values.

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Tips:
You can interrupt the solution process by pressing ESC. Microsoft Excel recalculates the worksheet with the last values found for the adjustable cells.

BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER


Below is a link to a simple marketing campaign model for ABC Widget Company. To better understand this example you should download a copy of this spreadsheet by clicking here: Nov 1999 Sample

In the marketing campaign model, rows 5 through 17 contain the assumptions and rows 26 through 33 contain the results.

The formulas to generate the results are relative simple and can be analyzed by click on the various cells.

Now suppose you want to know what is break-even response rate to the marketing campaign assuming the following:

      Number of Solicitations 500,000 (in cell D5)
      Solicitation Unit Cost $0.32 (in cell D7)
      Average Sale $49.99 (in cell D11)
      Cost of Goods Sold% 50% (in cell D13)
      Average shipping per sale $4.99 (in cell D15)
    Fixed Costs $10,000 (in cell D17)

From the tool bar, click “Tools”, then “Goal Seek”, click cell D33 (contribution margin), enter zero in the “To Value:” box, then enter D9 (response rate) in the “By Changing Cell” box. Finally click “OK”. The results show that a response rate of 1.7% to the marketing campaign will result in a break even!!!!

You can play around with different variation of this. Fixing other assumptions and varying other cells such as “Average Sales”, or “Solicitation Unit Cost”.

The same results can be achieved using “Solver”. For this example we will change the value in D7(solicitation unit cost) to $0.30.

From the tool bar, click “Tools”, then “Solver”, enter D33 (contribution margin) in the “Set Target Box”, check the box “Value of” and enter zero in the box, then enter D9 (response rate) in the “By Changing Cell” box. Finally click “Solve”. The results again show that a response rate of 1.6% to the marketing campaign will result in a break even!!!!

This of course is a simply example, if you have marketing models you can use solver and goal seek to set criteria and set goals.

Explore Microsoft Excel’s ability to import and summarize data

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we will explore Microsoft Excel’s ability to import and summarize data using the following twelve different functions: 

  • IMPORT
  • LIST
  • SORT A LIST
  • SUBTOTALS
  • COUNT
  • COUNTA
  • COUNTIF
  • SUMIF
  • AVERAGE
  • MEDIAN
  • MAX
  • MIN

IMPORT


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Microsoft Excel can import data from external data sources such as an AS400, the internet, or an external database. Examples of data that we have imported and manipulated include fixed assets, accounts receivable, inventory, sales by customer, etc.

Start by simply exporting the data from it source program in one of the following formats:

        – TXT (“Text”)

 

        – CSV (“Comma Separated Variables”)

 

      – DIF (“Data Interchange File”)

Then open the file like a normal Excel file, the “Text Import Wizard” will guide you through importing the data. Nearly all files are comma delimited. The result spreadsheet is called a “list”.

LIST


A LIST is a series of worksheet rows that contain related data, such as an invoice database or a set of client names and phone numbers. A list can be used as a database, in which rows are records and columns are fields. The first row of the list has labels for the columns.

SORT A LIST


You can rearrange the rows or columns of a list based on the values in the list by sorting. When you sort, Microsoft Excel rearranges rows, columns, or individual cells by using the sort order that you specify. You can sort lists in ascending (1 to 9, A to Z) or descending (9 to 1, Z to A) order, and sort based on the contents of one or more columns.

Microsoft Excel sorts lists alphabetically by default. If you need to sort months and weekdays according to their calendar order instead of their alphabetic order, use a custom sort order. You can also rearrange lists in a specific order by creating custom sort orders. For example, if you have a list that contains the entry “Low,” “Medium,” or “High” in a column, you can create a sort order that arranges rows that contain “Low” first, rows that contain “Medium” next, and rows with “High” last.

To perform a sort highlight the entire data range you would like to sort. Then from the toolbar select “Data” and “Sort”. Select the rows to sort and the order desired ascending or descending. If the list does not have a header row select, check “No Header Row”

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SUBTOTALS


Insert subtotal values into a list

In a long list of data, you can use subtotals to automatically outline the information on a worksheet. You can “nest,” or insert, subtotals for smaller groups within subtotal groups, which is useful when you need to calculate subtotals within groups of values. You can remove subtotals from a list without affecting your original data.

      1 – Sort the list by the column for which you want to calculate subtotals. For example, to summarize the units sold by each salesperson in a list of salespeople, sales amounts, and the number of units sold, sort the list by the salesperson column.
        2 – Click a cell in the list.

 

        3 – On the Data menu, click Subtotals.

 

        4 – In the At each change in box, click the column that contains the groups for which you want subtotals. This should be the same column by which you sorted your list in step 1.

 

        5 – In the Use function box, click the function you want to use to calculate the subtotals.

 

        6 – In the Add subtotal to box, select the check boxes for the columns that contain the values for which you want subtotals.

 

COUNT


Counts the number of cells that contain numbers and numbers within the list of arguments. Use COUNT to get the number of entries in a number field in a range or array of numbers.

Syntax

COUNT(value1,value2, …)

    “Value1”, “value2”, … are 1 to 30 arguments that can contain or refer to a variety of different types of data, but only numbers are counted.

Arguments that are numbers, dates, or text representations of numbers are counted; arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers are ignored.

If an argument is an array or reference, only numbers in that array or reference are counted. Empty cells, logical values, text, or error values in the array or reference are ignored. If you need to count logical values, text, or error values, use the COUNTA function.

Examples

In the following example, suppose A1:A7 contain “Sales”, “12/8/90”, “”, “19”, “22.24”, “TRUE”, “#DIV/0!” respectively:

COUNT(A1:A7) equals 3
COUNT(A4:A7) equals 2
COUNT(A1:A7, 2) equals 4

COUNTA


Counts the number of cells that are not empty and the values within the list of arguments. Use COUNTA to count the number of cells that contain data in a range or array.

Syntax

COUNTA(value1,value2, …)

    “Value1”, “value2”, … are 1 to 30 arguments representing the values you want to count. In this case, a value is any type of information, including empty text (“”) but not including empty cells. If an argument is an array or reference, empty cells within the array or reference are ignored. If you do not need to count logical values, text, or error values, use the COUNT function.

Examples

In the following example, suppose A1:A7 contain “Sales”, “12/8/90”, “”, “19”, “22.24”, “TRUE”, “#DIV/0!” respectively:

COUNTA(A1:A7) equals 6
COUNTA(A4:A7) equals 4
COUNTA(A1:A7, 2) equals 7
COUNTA(A1:A7, “Two”) equals 7

COUNTIF


Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria.

Syntax

COUNTIF(range,criteria)

“Range” is the range of cells from which you want to count cells.

“Criteria” is the criteria in the form of a number, expression, or text that defines which cells will be counted. For example, criteria can be expressed as 32, “32”, “>32”, “apples”.

Examples

Suppose A3:A6 contain “apples”, “oranges”, “peaches”, “apples”, respectively:
COUNTIF(A3:A6,”apples”) equals 2
Suppose B3:B6 contain 32, 54, 75, 86, respectively:
COUNTIF(B3:B6,”>55″) equals 2

SUMIF


Adds the cells specified by a given criteria.

Syntax

SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)

“Range” is the range of cells you want evaluated.

“Criteria” is the criteria in the form of a number, expression, or text that defines which cells will be added. For example, criteria can be expressed as 32, “32”, “>32”, “apples”.

“Sum_range” are the actual cells to sum. The cells in sum_range are summed only if their corresponding cells in range match the criteria. If sum_range is omitted, the cells in range are summed.

Example

Suppose A1:A4 contain the following property values for four homes: $100,000, $200,000, $300,000, $400,000, respectively. B1:B4 contain the following sales commissions on each of the corresponding property values: $7,000, $14,000, $21,000, $28,000.

SUMIF(A1:A4,”>160000″,B1:B4) equals $63,000

AVERAGE


Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments.

Syntax

AVERAGE(number1,number2, …)

    “Number1”, “number2”, … are 1 to 30 numeric arguments for which you want the average.

Remarks

      The arguments must be either numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers.

If an array or reference argument contains text, logical values, or empty cells, those values are ignored; however, cells with the value zero are included.

Tip: When averaging cells, keep in mind the difference between empty cells and those containing the value zero, especially if you have cleared the Zero values check box on the View tab (Options command, Tools menu). Empty cells are not counted, but zero values are.

Example

If A1:A5 is named Scores and contains the numbers 10, 7, 9, 27, and 2, then:

AVERAGE(A1:A5) equals 11
AVERAGE(Scores) equals 11
AVERAGE(A1:A5, 5) equals 10
AVERAGE(A1:A5) equals SUM(A1:A5)/COUNT(A1:A5) equals 11

If C1:C3 is named OtherScores and contains the numbers 4, 18, and 7, then:

AVERAGE(Scores, OtherScores) equals 10.5

MEDIAN


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Returns the median of the given numbers. The median is the number in the middle of a set of numbers; that is, half the numbers have values that are greater than the median, and half have values that are less.

Syntax

MEDIAN(number1,number2, …)

      “Number1”, “number2”, … are 1 to 30 numeric arguments for which you want the median.

The arguments should be either numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers. Microsoft Excel examines all the numbers in each reference or array argument.

If an array or reference argument contains text, logical values, or empty cells, those values are ignored; however, cells with the value zero are included.

Remarks

    If there is an even number of numbers in the set, then MEDIAN calculates the average of the two numbers in the middle. See the second example following.

Example

MEDIAN(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) equals 3

MEDIAN(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) equals 3.5, the average of 3 and 4

MAX


Returns the largest value in a set of values.

Syntax

MAX(number1,number2,…)

“Number1”, “number2”,… are 1 to 30 numbers for which you want to find the maximum value.

      You can specify arguments that are numbers, empty cells, logical values, or text representations of numbers. Arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers cause errors.

If an argument is an array or reference, only numbers in that array or reference are used. Empty cells, logical values, or text in the array or reference are ignored. If logical values and text must not be ignored, use MAXA instead.

If the arguments contain no numbers, MAX returns 0 (zero).

Example

If A1:A5 contains the numbers 10, 7, 9, 27, and 2, then:

MAX(A1:A5) equals 27
MAX(A1:A5,30) equals 30

MIN


Returns the smallest number in a set of values.

Syntax

MIN(number1,number2,…)

“Number1”, “number2”,… are 1 to 30 numbers for which you want to find the minimum value.

      You can specify arguments that are numbers, empty cells, logical values, or text representations of numbers. Arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers cause errors.

If an argument is an array or reference, only numbers in that array or reference are used. Empty cells, logical values, or text in the array or reference are ignored.

If the arguments contain no numbers, MIN returns 0 (zero).

Example

If A1:A5 contains the numbers 10, 7, 9, 27, and 2, then:

MIN(A1:A5) equals 2
MIN(A1:A5,0) equals 0

Common Print Problems Experienced When Using Microsoft Excel

we will present solutions to the following common print problems experienced when using Microsoft Excel:

        1 – WHY DOES MICROSOFT EXCEL PRINT ONLY A PORTION OF MY WORKSHEET?

2 – I WANT MY SHEET TO PRINT ONE PAGE WIDE (OR TALL)3 – MY PRINTED HEADER OR FOOTER DOESN’T LOOK THE WAY I WANT4 – MICROSOFT EXCEL IGNORES THE PAGE BREAKS I SET5 – WHY DO SOME COLUMNS AND ROWS PRINT ON THE WRONG PAGE?6 – WHY DOESN’T EXCEL PRINT MULTIPLE PRINT AREAS ON THE SAME PAGE?7 – I CAN’T SCALE A CHART TO PRINT THE SIZE I WANT OR PRINT MULTIPLE CHARTS ON A SINGLE PAGE?

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WHY DOES MICROSOFT EXCEL PRINT ONLY A PORTION OF MY WORKSHEET?


CHECK WHETHER A PRINT AREA IS DEFINED. If the worksheet contains a print area, Microsoft Excel prints only the print area. To determine whether your worksheet contains a print area, click “Page Break Preview” on the “View” menu. The area of the worksheet that appears with a white background is the area that is printed.

To print the whole sheet, clear the print area. You can clear the print area by using the “Clear Print Area” command (“Print Area” on the “File” menu).

CHANGE THE PRINT AREA. You can change the size of the print area so that it includes or excludes rows and columns. On the “View” menu, click “Page Break Preview”, and then drag the borders that surround the print area.

To add nonadjacent cells to the print area, select the cells, right-click any cell in the selection, and then click “Add to Print Area” on the shortcut menu.

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I WANT MY SHEET TO PRINT ONE PAGE WIDE (OR TALL)


You can prevent columns or rows from spilling over the edge of a page by shrinking the sheet so that it is one page wide or tall. On the “File” menu, click “Page Setup”, and then click the “Page” tab. Click “Fit to”, type “1” in either the “page(s) wide by” box or the “tall” box, and then delete the number (if any) from the other box.

MY PRINTED HEADER OR FOOTER DOESN’T LOOK THE WAY I WANT!


You can choose from several built-in headers and footers or create your own. On the “View” menu, click “Header and Footer”.

Use black and white only. The text in headers and footers always prints in black. You cannot apply color to the text in headers or footers, even if you have a color printer.

Use print titles to repeat graphics and linked information. If you want to repeat graphics or linked information at the top of every page, use print titles instead of a header. For example, to print a company logo and address at the top of every page, place the information in the first few rows of the worksheet. On the “File” menu, click “Page Setup”, click the “Sheet” tab, and then enter the rows that contain the logo and address in the “Rows to repeat at top” box. If you’re printing a wide worksheet on multiple pages, be sure to copy the repeating information to additional rows or columns as needed.

Headers and footers cannot contain graphics or links to specific cells.

Use the existing left and right margins. The left and right header and footer margins are three-quarters (.75) of an inch, regardless of the left and right margins on the page. You can simulate wider margins on a single line header or footer by typing spaces before the text in the “Left section” edit box and after the text in the “Right section” edit box. (To locate these edit boxes, click “Custom Header” or “Custom Footer” in the “Page Setup” dialog box.) The spaces you type in the “Right section” edit box won’t appear in the edit box, but will appear in the printed worksheet.

Adjust the space for the header and footer. You can adjust the distance between the top or bottom of the page and the header or footer. You can also change the distance between the data printed on a page and the header or footer. Click “Print Preview”, click the “Margins” button, and drag the margin handles to adjust the spacing.

Use two ampersand (&) characters to print an ampersand Microsoft Excel uses the ampersand to initiate codes for special formatting in the headers and footers. Therefore, to enter an ampersand in the header or footer, you must enter “&&”. For example, to include “Subcontractors & Services” in a header, enter “Subcontractors && Services”.

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MICROSOFT EXCEL IGNORES THE PAGE BREAKS I SET


If your workbook is set up so that Excel fits your printed work on a specific number of pages, Excel ignores the manual page breaks you’ve set and reduces the size of the printed worksheet. (To see whether this is the case, click “Page Setup” on the “File” menu, click the “Page” tab, and check the “Fit to” option under “Scaling”.)

Use Adjust To instead of Fit To To fit the worksheet to the specified number of pages and use the manual page breaks you inserted, click “Page Setup” on the “File” menu, click the “Page” tab, and then click “Adjust to”.

Set each page as a separate print range. If “Adjust to” doesn’t produce the results you want, you can set a print area with each page selected as a separate range. Excel prints nonadjacent ranges in a print area on separate pages.

Insert a blank row or column in each location where you want a manual page break.

Select the range you want to include as the entire first page, omitting the blank row or column.

Hold down CTRL and select the range for the second page, omitting the blank rows or columns. Continue until you’ve selected all pages that you want to print.

On the “File” menu, point to “Print Area”, and then click “Set Print Area”. On the “File” menu, click “Page Setup”, click the “Page” tab, click “Fit to”, and enter the number of pages you want.

WHY DO SOME COLUMNS AND ROWS PRINT ON THE WRONG PAGE?


Column widths, row heights, page margins, and page breaks determine the number of columns and rows that print on a page.

Make margins smaller. If some columns or rows print on the next page, try decreasing the size of the “Top”, “Bottom”, “Left”, and “Right” margins. On the “File” menu, click “Page Setup”, and then click the “Margins” tab.

Adjust page breaks. You can move page breaks before you print your document. On the “View” menu, click “Page Break Preview”. Microsoft Excel displays manual page breaks as thick blue lines; automatic page breaks appear as dashed lines. You can move page breaks by dragging them left, right, up, or down.

If a column prints on the wrong page – for example, on the second page instead of the first page – drag the page break that is to the left of the column one column to the right. If a row prints on the page that follows the page where you want it to print, drag the page break that is above the row to a position below the row. Excel automatically scales the worksheet to fit the columns and rows to the page.

Make the sheet print one page wide. If you want the worksheet to be only one page wide, regardless of the number of pages, you can restrict it to the width of a single page. On the “File” menu, click “Page Setup”, and then click the “Page” tab. Under “Scaling”, click “Fit to”, type “1” in either the “page(s) wide by” box or the “tall” box, and then delete the number (if any) from the other box.

Change the orientation. If you need a few more columns to print on the same page, change the orientation to landscape. On the “File” menu, click “Page Setup”, and then click the “Page” tab. Under “Orientation”, click “Landscape”.

WHY DOESN’T EXCEL PRINT MULTIPLE PRINT AREAS ON THE SAME PAGE?


If a print area contains nonadjacent areas of a worksheet, Microsoft Excel prints each area on a separate page by default. However, you can specify that separate parts of a worksheet print on the same page by using one of the following methods.

Bring together the columns you want. To print nonadjacent columns side by side, first select the columns you don’t want to print, point to “Column” on the “Format” menu, and then click “Hide”. Set one print area that contains all of the columns, including the hidden columns.

Bring together the rows you want. To print nonadjacent rows above and below each other, first select the rows you don’t want to print, point to “Row” on the “Format” menu, and then click “Hide”. Set one print area that contains all of the rows, including the hidden rows.

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I CAN’T SCALE A CHART TO PRINT THE SIZE I WANT OR PRINT MULTIPLE CHARTS ON A SINGLE PAGE?


For chart sheets, set the print size. If the chart is on a chart sheet, you can scale it when you print it. Activate the chart sheet, click “Page Setup” on the “File” menu, and then click the “Chart” tab. Under “Printed chart size”, click the scaling option you want.

If you click “Custom”, the chart will be printed at the size you make it when you drag its selection handles.

For embedded charts, drag to resize. If the chart is an embedded chart on a worksheet, resize the chart by clicking it and then dragging its selection handles.

To print charts together on a page, embed them. You cannot print multiple chart sheets on a single page. To print two or more charts on a page, create embedded charts, and then resize them to fit on a single page. You can use the “Page Break Preview” command on the “View” menu to more closely see the location of the charts in the print area.